Mohieldin Elsayid1, Mohammed Jahman Al-Shehri1, Yasser Abdullah Alkulaibi1, Abdullah Alanazi2, Shoeb Qureshi3
1Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud Bin Abdul-Aziz University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
2Department of Emergency Medical Services, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud Bin Abdul-Aziz University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
3Department of Research Methodology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud Bin Abdul-Aziz University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Background: Notwithstanding, the growing incidence of sickle cell hemoglobinopathies (SCH) such as sickle cell anemia (SCA) or sickle cell disease, sickle/beta-thalassemia; the exact prevalence remains obscure in Saudi Arabia. Hence, this study is an attempt to determine the frequency of SCA and sickle cell trait (SCT) among all anemic patients with SCH treated at the King Abdul-Aziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the hemoglobin (Hb) S and other Hb patterns (Hb AS and Hb F) were also estimated in SCA and SCT patients. Materials and Methods: Results of Hb capillary electrophoresis performed on all patients with SCH from January 2011 to December 2013 were evaluated retrospectively. Results: Of a total of 3332 patient data analyzed, 307 were anemic patients (58% males and 42% females) with SCH. The sickling test showed all the patients to be positive. Hb electrophoresis revealed the incidence of 96.7%, 3.3%, and 0% of the patients suffered from SCA, SCT and sickle/beta-thalassemia, respectively. Patients with SCA had a higher level of Hb F and showed no crisis when compared with other SCA patients who had lower or no Hb F levels. Conclusion: SCA is relatively frequent among males (56.4%) than females out of all patients with SCH. The SCA incidence was more common (48.5%) among children, frequency of SCT among adult age group was 1.6%, while sickle/beta-thalassemia was 0%.
Keywords: Fetal hemoglobin, sickle cell anemia, sickle cell hemoglobinopathies, sickle cell trait, sickle/beta-thalassemia