A Sri Kennath J Arul, Peramachi Palanivelu
Department of Molecular Microbiology, School of Biotechnology, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India
Background: Dental plaque being one of the most-studied biofilm communities, is particularly complex because it consists of thousands of bacterial species, and new species are still being isolated and characterized. The aim of the present study is to characterize surface topography of the biofilm formed by a new bacterial isolate, obtained from the dental caries lesion using atomic force microscopy. Materials and Methods: Ten clinical isolates were obtained from five teeth with carious lesions involving dentine. Quantification of the biofilm forming ability of the clinical isolates was performed using microtiter plate assay. Bacterial isolate exhibiting maximum biofilm formation was subjected to phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and atomic force microscopic analysis. Results: The bacterial strain JKAS-CD2 displayed the highest similarity to 16S rRNA gene sequences of members of the family Streptococcaceae. It shared 95.3-99.3% similarity to the type strains of genus Streptococcus and 99.9% sequence similarity to the type strain Streptococcus infantarius. Atomic Force Microscopic analysis confirmed that the sucrose dependent bacterial adhesion for stable biofilm development has increased over a time-span on the thin film of enamel. Major structural components of plaque such as clumping of colonies and slime layer were clearly visualized by surface image of JKAS-CD2 cells grown on the enamel powder coated glass surface. Conclusion: JKAS-CD2 emerged as an obligate biofilm forming microbe under sucrose-dependent condition; a mechanism for adherence that determines the survival and persistence of the bacteria in the oral cavity and thus implicated with the dental caries.
Keywords: Atomic force microscopy, biofilm, dental caries, S. infantarius, virulence factor