Deepalaxmi Salmani1, Suja Purushothaman2, Saligrama Chikkannasetty Somashekara3, Ekambaram Gnanagurudasan1, Kampli Sumangaladevi4, Recapu Harikishan4, Muthinpala Venkateshwarareddy4
1 Department of Anatomy, Malabar Medical College and Research Centre, Modakkallur, Atholi, Kerala, India
2 Department of Physiology, Malabar Medical College and Research Centre, Modakkallur, Atholi, Kerala, India
3 Department of Pharmacology, Malabar Medical College and Research Centre, Modakkallur, Atholi, Kerala, India
4 Department of Anatomy, S.V.S Medical College, Mahabubnagar, Andhra Pradesh, India
Background: Hypertension is one of the most common complication during pregnancy. It contributes significantly to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to investigate the morphological and histopathological changes in placenta from pregnancies complicated with hypertension. Objectives: To study the morbid changes in placenta in cases of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and to correlate the findings with birth weight of new born babies in comparison with normotensive mothers. Materials and Methods: The study was done on 100 placentas, out of which 50 were collected from normotensive mothers and the remaining 50 from PIH cases. All the placentas were studied morphologically and histologically. The birth weight of neonates was recorded. Results: In the present study it was observed that weight and dimensions of placenta was less in study group when compared with control group. The mean neonatal birth weight was more in normal pregnancy and feto-placental weight ratio was significantly high in hypertensive group. Histopathological study showed significant number of syncitial knots, areas of fibrinoid necrosis, hyalinization, calcification, and medial coat proliferation of medium sized blood vessels in hypertensive group. Conclusion: PIH significantly affects the placenta by reducing its weight and dimensions. These changes may cause placental insufficiency as a result of compromised utero-placental blood flow. Therefore has an adverse affect on the neonatal birth weight. PIH has definite influence on morphology, histology of placenta, and thus affects the growth of the fetus.
Keywords: Neonatal birth weight, placenta, pregnancy-induced hypertension