Rekha Lalwani1, Sunita A Athavale1, Ketu Chauhan2, Guljari Lal Nigam2, C S. Ramesh Babu3, Sheetal Kotgirwar1
1Department of Anatomy, All Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.
2Department of Anatomy, LLRM Medical College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India.
3Department of Anatomy, Muzaffarnagar Medical College, Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Context: The terminal ends of gonadal veins act as an entry portal in gonadal embolization procedures used for treating varicocele in males and pelvic congestion disease in females. Here, we studied the modes of termination of gonadal veins in adult cadavers. Material and Methods: Thirty-five adult formalin-fixed cadavers (seventy sides) were studied over a period of 4 years. The modes of termination of gonadal veins were observed under the following study variables: (a) number, (b) locale of termination, and (c) termination angle. Results: Variations in study parameters were observed in eight sides of seven cadavers (seven unilateral and one bilateral). Double veins at termination were observed in six cadavers; anomalous termination was observed in three cadavers. Angle of termination differed from normal in 3 cadavers. In one of these cadavers, the left ovarian vein drained into the left suprarenal vein. Conclusion: Duplication of terminal ends, anomalous drainage site, and varied angles of termination call for caution to ensure the success of procedures, which use terminal ends of gonadal veins as entry portals.
Keywords: Inferior vena cava, ovarian vein, renal vein, suprarenal vein, testicular vein.