Rehab Elmougy1, Afaf Elsaid2, Nivin Salah1
1Department of Chemistry, Division of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
2Department of Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
Background: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a disease affecting both children and adults. Cytokines act as inflammatory mediators in childhood NS. Excretion of too much protein in patients’ urine as well as reduction in albumin levels in their blood are the most common symptoms of NS. Aim of the Study: The aim is to assess the potential relationship of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (−308 G/A) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) (−509C/T) genes with the incidence of NS. Subjects and Methods: In this study, 99 healthy children and 98 children with NS have been included. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the gene polymorphism of both TNF-α-G308A and TGF-β1 (−509C/T). Results: The TNF-α G308A showed a significant different genotype distribution among children with NS compared with the healthy volunteers (GG vs. AA, P = 0.0009; [odds ratio [OR] 95% CI = 25.2 [2.45–259.23]); GG vs. GA, P = 0.001; (OR 95% CI = 4.84 [1.74–13.5]); as well as alleles distribution of G vs. A, P = 0.022; (OR 95% CI = 1.06 [1.068–2.42]). However, there is a non-significant variation in the frequency of TGF-β1 (-509C/T) genotypes (CC, CT and TT) respectively (11.4%, 78.5% and 10.1) in NS patients, compared with their corresponding levels in healthy control subjects (15.5%, 68% and 16.5). Conclusion: TNF-α-G308A polymorphism may help to early predict the incidence of NS in children, while TGF-β1 showed no effect on the disease incidence.
Keywords: Nephrotic syndrome, transforming growth factor-β1, tumor necrosis factor-α.