• Hakeem Gh Hassan, Arwa M. Al-Shuwaikh, Raid Kareem
  • Al-Hussein Teaching Hospital, Thi-Qar health office, Thi Qar, Iraq.
  • Email: alhamamy201567@gmail.com.
  • Dept. of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Email: arwa_alshwaikh_2004@yahoo.com.
  • Dept. of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Thi Qar University, Thi Qar, Iraq..
  • Email: raidkd4@gmail.com.


Background: Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is an auto-immune illness distinguished by the gradual and subtle loss of pancreatic beta cells over time. Coxsackievirus-B is an enterovirus that preferentially targets pancreatic cells. Cytokines are the primary inflammatory mediators which play an important function in preventing the death of beta cells. Aim: This study aimed to identify interferon alfa, interferon beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha which are pro-inflammatory and stimulate the activation of immune cells and anti-cell autoreactive T lymphocytes. In addition, they have a substantial role in the development of type 1 diabetes in some viral infections. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 children with type 1 diabetes were enrolled in the present study between January and March of 2021. The levels of Coxsackievirus B IgG, interferon alfa, interferon beta, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the serum of the participants were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The T1D patients had significantly greater levels of anti-Coxsackievirus-B IgG antibodies than controls. The results of interferon alfa, interferon beta, interleukin-6 and TNF-a were tested and correlated with Coxsackievirus IgG antibodies. Conclusion: Patients with anti-Coxsackievirus-B IgG antibodies were found to have higher levels of these pro-inflammatory cytokines. The results showed that these cytokines have an important link between many viral and immune factors which are involved in the pathology of Type 1 diabetes.

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