• Niroosh H. Taha, Kawa F. Dizaye
  • Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy - University of Duhok, Iraq.
  • Email: niroosh.taha@uod.ac.
  • (Department of Basic Sciences, Hawler Medical University- College of Medicine, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Email: kawa.dizaye@hmu.edu.krd.


Background: The women's quality of life changes dramatically after 45 years due to the tremendous physiological changes. These changes end with menopause; however, years preceding this time are frustrating for many women because up to 20% of women might experience several symptoms of variable intensity affecting their quality of life. In Duhok city, Zingiber officinale is used as a traditional medicine by menopausal women to alleviate some menopausal symptoms. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the impact of Zingiber officinalis on menopausal symptoms and their relation to female sex hormonal changes in middle-aged women in Duhok city. Subjects and Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted for twelve weeks on fifty menopausal women. Thirty women were treated daily with Zingiber officinale (1000 mg), and the other twenty women were given  starch as a placebo (1000 mg). Blood samples were taken from both groups before and after twelve weeks to assess the serum levels of female sex hormones. In addition, the menopausal rating scale was used to measure the frequency and intensity of menopausal symptoms. Results: The most common menopausal symptoms among studied women were physical symptoms (54%), like hot flashes, night sweating and musculoskeletal pain. Zingiber officinale significantly reduced the intensity of menopausal symptoms with a significant increase in serum estrogen levels (p <0.001). In addition, significant reduction in serum level of FSH was also observed (p <0.001). Conclusion:  Elevation of serum estrogen levels and reduction in FSH by ginger powder are helpful in reducing the intensity of menopausal symptoms.


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