Saleha Sungkar1, Didit Fathurrahman2, Stanley Buntaran2, Aria Kekalih3
1Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
2Undergraduate Medical Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
3Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Introduction: Malaria is endemic in Indonesia, especially in East Nusa Tenggara (ENT). To reduce its prevalence, the Ministry of Health has launched a program of insecticide-treated net (ITN) distribution to protect people from mosquito bites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of ITNs in reducing malaria prevalence in Kori Subdistrict, Southwest Sumba, ENT. Materials and Methods: This study used secondary data from the primary healthcare center in Kori. The data were the number of patients, gender, age, and presenting with fever and diagnosed by rapid diagnostic test in the year before and after the distribution of ITNs. The effects were evaluated using Chi-square test. Results: The prevalence of malaria in 2014 was 51.1% and consisted of 30.6% Plasmodium falciparum, 19.5% Plasmodium vivax, and 1% mixed infection. After the distribution of ITNs in 2015, the prevalence decreased to 41.3% (P < 0.001) with the fall occurring in infections by P. falciparum, though the prevalence of P. vivax and of mixed infections did not change identifiably. The decrease in the prevalence was most marked for women and children under the age of five. Conclusion: The prevalence of malaria in Kori subdistrict, Southwest Sumba, fell substantially from 51.1% to 41.3% in the year after ITN distribution.
Keywords: Anopheles, endemic, plasmodium, public health.