Rajiv Saini1, Santosh Saini2, Sugandha Sharma3
1Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology, Rural Dental College, Maharashtra, India.
2Department of Microbiology, Rural Dental College, Maharashtra, India.
3Department of Prosthodontics, Rural Dental College, Maharashtra, India.
Recent advances in research technology have allowed researchers to study bacteria in their natural environment. Dental biofilm forms via an ordered sequence of events, resulting in structured and functionally organized species rich microbial community and modern molecular biological techniques have identified about 1000 different bacterial species in the dental biofilm, twice as many as can be cultured. Sites for biofilm formation include all kinds of surfaces: natural materials above and below ground, metals, plastics, medical implant materials-even plant and body tissue. Wherever you find a combination of moisture, nutrients and a surface, you are likely to find biofilm. The biofilm is used to describe the communities of micro-organisms attached to a surface; such microbes are usually spatially organized into three-dimension structure and are enclosed in matrix of extracellular material derived both from the cells themselves and from the environment. Dental biofilm pathogenicity in the oral cavity is magnified by specific biofilm characteristics and modern molecular biological techniques have identified about 1000 different bacterial species in the dental biofilm, twice as many as can be cultured. Adaptation to a biofilm lifestyle involves regulation of a vast set of genes, and the micro-organisms are thus able to optimize phenotypic properties for the particular environment.
Keywords: Bacteria, biofilm, plaque.