K Ananda Krishna1, K Sai Krishna2, Ruben Berrocal3, Alekya Tummala4, KS Rao3, K.R.S. Sambasiva Rao5
1Department of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, India
2Department of Biotechnology, Meenakshi Medical College and Research Institute, Enathur, Kancheepuram, Tamilnadu, India
3Institute for Scientific Research and Technology Services, National Secretariat for Science, Technology and Innovation, Clayton City of Knowledge, Republic of Panama
4Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Columbus College of Medicine, Republic of Panama
5Department of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, India; Institute for Scientific Research and Technology Services, National Secretariat for Science, Technology and Innovation, Clayton City of Knowledge, Republic of Panama.
Despite the liver being proliferatively quiescent, it maintains balance between cell gain and cell loss, invokes a rapid regenerative response following hepatocyte loss, and restores liver mass. Human liver has immense regenerative capacity. Liver comprises many cell types with specialized functions. Of these cell types, hepatocytes play several key roles, but are most vulnerable to damage. Recent studies suggest that the extrahepatic stem cell pool contributes to liver regeneration. Stem cell therapies have the potential to enhance hepatic regeneration. Both embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells could be a suitable source to regenerate hepatocytes. In the present review, we discuss the therapeutic potential of stem cells in hepatic repair and focus on the clinical applications of stem cells.
Keywords: Embryonic stem cells, end-stage liver disease, hepatocytes, induced pluripotent stem cells, liver, stem cells.