Mani Kant Kumar1, Punit Kumar Singh2, Pankaj Kumar Patel3
1 Department of Pediatrics, Narayan Medical College and Hospital, Jamuhar, Sasaram, Bihar, India
2 Department of Dermatology, Narayan Medical College and Hospital, Jamuhar, Sasaram, Bihar, India
3 Department of Pathology, Narayan Medical College and Hospital, Jamuhar, Sasaram, Bihar, India
Objective: To study the clinical features, absolute eosinophil count, and total immunoglobulin E (IgE) level and their association with severity of atopic dermatitis in Eastern Indian children (Bihar). Design: Prospective hospital-based study. Settings: Pediatrics out-patient Department (OPD) and Dermatology OPD of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital located in Rohtas District of Bihar. The study was carried out over a period of 2 years during January 2010 to December 2011. Participants: One hundred and thirty two children aged 0 month to 15 years were diagnosed with atopic dermatitis. Main Outcome: Demographic profile, common clinical features, absolute eosinophil count, and total IgE level and their correlation with severity of atopic dermatitis in Eastern Indian children. Results: Out of a total 1829 pediatric patients aged 0 month to 15 years with some pediatric dermatoses, 132 (7.21%) had atopic dermatitis. Of 132 patients, 57 (43.2%) were boys and 75 (56.8%) were girls, with a male to female ratio 1:1.3. Of these 29 were infants and 103 were children. Two (62.1%) patients belonged to rural area whereas 50 (37.9%) belonged to urban area. Personal history, family history (up to third degree relatives), and both personal and family history of atopy were present in 43.18%, 33.34%, and 12.1% of the subjects respectively. Majority (89.4%) of patients had onset before 5 years of age. In infantile Atopic dermatitis (AD), mean age ± SD at onset was 5.2 months ± 3.01 months. In infantile group, 8 (27.6%) had mild, 14 (48.3%) moderate, and 7 (24.1%) had severe atopic dermatitis. Infantile AD had statistically significant higher SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index score in all three grades of severity of the disease. One hundred and three patients had childhood AD, out of which 40 (38.8%) were boys and 63 (61.2%) were girls, with a male to female ratio 1:1.57. In childhood AD, mean age ± SD at onset of the disease was 3.47 years ± 3.02 years. Sixty three (61.1%) belonged to rural area whereas 40 (38.9%) were from urban area. One hundred and thirty (98%) patients presented with itching. Ninety two (69.7%) patients had high absolute eosinophils count (AEC) with mean ± SD of 1004.1 ± 596.2 (range 325-2510). Eighty seven (65.9%) patients had increased total serum immunoglobulin E (TsIgE) with mean ± SD value of 1127.11 IU/ml ± 731.69 IU/ml (range: 125-2680 IU/ml). Conclusion: Epidemiological data on atopic dermatitis in India are mainly hospital-based, true-point prevalence in community is still scanty . Although the prevalence of AD is considered to be increasing, it still remains low in comparison to developed countries. In Indian children, the disease is relatively milder than children of developed countries. This study identified that both AEC and TsIgE increased significantly in about 66% patient and directly correlated with the severity of the AD.
Keywords: Absolute eosinophil count, atopic dermatitis, Eastern Indian children, total serum immunoglobulin E