Athulya G Asokan1, Jayakumar Jaganathan2, Rajeev Philip1, Rino Roopak Soman3, Shibu Thomas Sebastian4, Fawaz Pullishery5
1Department of General Medicine, Pushpagiri Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Thiruvalla, Kerala, India.
2Department of General Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.
3Department of Periodontics, Pushpagiri College of Dental Sciences, Thiruvalla, Kerala, India.
4Department of Public Health Dentistry, Pushpagiri College of Dental Sciences, Thiruvalla, Kerala, India.
5Department of Public Health Dentistry, Educare Institute of Dental Sciences, Malappuram, Kerala, India.
Background: Diabetes is one of the world’s biggest health problems and the disease affects almost all organ systems. The relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and bone mineral density (BMD) has been controversial. Early identification of reduction in bone mass in a diabetic patient may be helpful in preventing the bone loss and future fracture risks. Objective: The aim is to study the effect of T2DM on BMD among patients in South Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 patients between 40 and 70 years of age which included 75 diabetic and 75 nondiabetic subjects. BMD was measured using qualitative ultrasound and the data were compared among age-matched subjects of both the groups. Statistical analysis was performed using unpaired Student’s t-test and test of equality of proportions. Results: No significant difference was observed in bone density of both the groups. On further analyzing the data, incidence of osteoporosis was higher among diabetic subjects, whereas incidence of osteopenia was higher among nondiabetic subjects. Conclusion: Although significant difference in bone mineral density was not observed in both the groups, the incidence of osteoporosis was higher among type 2 diabetics. Hence, all type 2 diabetics should be evaluated for the risk of osteoporosis and should be offered appropriate preventive measures.
Keywords: Bone mineral density, osteoporosis, qualitative ultrasound, type 2 diabetes.