Rajiv Saini1, Santosh Saini2, Sugandha R Saini3
1Department of Periodontology, Rural Dental College, Loni; Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences, Loni, Ahmed Nagar, Maharashtra, India.
2Department of Microbiology, Rural Dental College, Loni; Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences, Loni, Ahmed Nagar, Maharashtra, India.
3Department of Prosthodontics, Rural Dental College, Loni; Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences, Loni, Ahmed Nagar, Maharashtra, India.
Periodontitis is a destructive inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth and is caused by specific microorganisms or group of specific microorganisms. The association of periodontal infection with organ systems like cardiovascular system, endocrine system, reproductive system, and respiratory system makes periodontal infection a complex multiphase disease. Inflamed periodontal tissues produce significant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, mainly interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), IL-6, prostaglandin E2, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), which may have systemic effects on the host. Low birth weight, defined as birth weight less than 2,500 g, continues to be a significant public health issue in both developed and developing countries. Research suggests that the bacteria that cause inflammation in the gums can actually get into the bloodstream and target the fetus, potentially leading to premature labor and low-birth-weight (PLBW) babies. One reasonable mechanism begins with deleterious effects of endotoxins released from Gram-negative bacteria responsible for periodontal disease. Hence periodontal disease appears to be an independent risk factor for PLBW and there is a need to expand preventive measures for pregnant women in harmonization with the gynecological and dental professions.
Keywords: Cytokines, dental, periodontitis, premature labor and low-birth-weight.