Abilasha Ramasubramanian, Pratibha Ramani, Herald J Sherlin, Priya Premkumar, Anuja Natesan, Chandrasekar Thiruvengadam
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, No. 162, Poonamallee High Road, Velappanchavadi, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.
Objective: To evaluate the degree of expression of cyclin-D1, p27 and p63 in mild, moderate and severe dysplasia using immunohistochemical evaluation in order to illustrate their prognostic value and attempt to propose a molecular grading system for oral epithelial dysplasia. Materials and Methods: The analysis included thirty cases of mild, moderate and severe dysplasia from Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai after a critical review of the Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) stained sections. They were subjected to immunohistochemical evaluation using the markers cyclin-D1, p27 and p63. The assessment of the expression based on staining intensity and distribution of immunohistochemical staining of the various markers was analyzed followed by statistical analysis. Results: A highly significant increase in the expression of cyclin-D1 ( P < 0.000) and p63 ( P < 0.001) and a moderately significant decrease in the expression of p27 ( P < 0.012) with the increasing severity of dysplasia was observed in our study. Conclusions: The result of our research affirms the fact that the increase in the expression of markers of cell cycle regulators such as cyclin D1, decrease in the expression of cell cycle inhibitors like p27 and increased expression of p63 in parallel with the increasing severity of dysplasia, emphasizes the use of immunohistochemical markers cyclin D1, p27 and p63 as prognostic markers for better understanding the behaviour of these potentially malignant disorders aiming towards proposing a molecular grading system for oral epithelial dysplasia to enable timely management prior to their possible malignant transformation.
Keywords: Cyclin-D1, immunohistochemistry, leukoplakia, oral epithelial dysplasia, p27, p63.