Kiran S Nikam1, Kanchan C Wingkar2, Rajendrakumar Katte3, Rajesh K Joshi4, Rajashekar K Kallur5
1Department of Physiology, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed University, Karad, Maharashtra; Department of Physiology and Psychiatry, Belagavi Institute of Medical Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka, India.
2Department of Physiology, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed University, Karad, Maharashtra, India.
3Department of Physiology and Psychiatry, Belagavi Institute of Medical Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka, India.
4Departments of Phytochemistry, ICMR National Institute of Traditional Medicine, Belagavi, Karnataka, India.
5Gujarat Adani Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhuj, Gujarat, India.
Background: Tobacco usage is a foremost avoidable risk factor for the progress and development of the psychological disease, its deleterious psychological effects through multiple mechanisms.To find out psychosocial impact in correlation to urinary cotinine levels of tobacco chewers (TC) and non tobacco chewers (NTC). Materials and Methods: A total of 600 TC and NTC (18–65 years) were studied using the Hamilton anxiety (Ham‑A) and Hamilton depression (Ham‑D) scale, Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence‑Smokeless Tobacco (FTND‑ST) scale, and structured questionnaire. Results: Psychosocial response by anxiety and depression scale for NTC and TC mean score comparison was found to be highly significant (P < 0.001). The mean urinary cotinine value in TC was increased as compared to the NTC group. Correlation of urinary cotinine levels with Ham‑A, Ham‑D, and FTND‑ST was found significant (P < 0.001). The receiver operating characteristic curve for predicting optimal scores for FTND‑ST was 4.5 and 16.5 for anxiety and depression. Conclusion: This is the first report from Belgaum which illuminates the linkage between tobacco chewing, psychological health risk factors, and addiction burden with urinary cotinine levels.
Keywords: Cotinine, psychosocial, tobacco