Bindu Damodaran1, Prashantha Nagaraja2, Vivek Jain2, MP Manuja Viraj Wimalasiri2, GM Sankolli3, G Vinoth Kumar4, Venkataraman Prabhu4
1Department of Medical Research, SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu; Department of Genomics, Genei Laboratories Private Limited, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2Department of Research and Development, Clovergen Life Sciences Private Limited and Scientific Bio Minds, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
3Department of Genomics, Genei Laboratories Private Limited, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
4Department of Medical Research, SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu, India
Background: Cancer is mostly managed by surgical removal, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. However, there are side effects associated with these methods. Alternatively, herbal medicines are becoming popular for cancer treatment. Calotropis gigantea is a widely used plant in the traditional medical system. However, there are no reports on its potential in cancer management. Therefore, we aimed to examine the phytochemical composition and cytotoxic activity of C. gigantea methanolic leaf extract against three different cancer cell lines: HeLa (cervical), MCF7 (breast), and A549 (lung). Materials and Methods: The methanolic extract of C. gigantea leaf was used to determine the presence of phytoconstituents using standard methods such as thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. HeLa, MCF7, and A549 cell lines were treated with C. gigantea methanolic leaf extract at different concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 μg/mL). Camptothecin and cisplatin were used as reference drugs for growth inhibition studies. Results: The phytoconstituents of methanolic leaf extract of C. gigantea included alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, and phenols. The extract exhibited cytotoxicity against HeLa (IC50= 117.92 μg/mL), MCF7 (IC50= 43.65 μg/mL), and A549 (IC50= 27.32 μg/mL) cancer cell lines in vitro. Conclusion: Our results indicated that C. gigantea exhibited cytotoxicity against cervical, breast, and lung cancer cell lines in vitro, and thus, the crude extract can be a potential candidate for cancer treatment.
Keywords: Calotropis gigantea, cancer, herbal medicines, phytochemicals.