Ravinder Garg1, Simmi Aggarwal2, Raj Kumar3, Ghansham Sharma4
1Department of Medicine, GGS Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot, Punjab, India.
2Department of Radio Diagnosis, GGS Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot, Punjab, India.
3Department of Pharmacology, GGS Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot, Punjab, India.
4Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, GGS Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot, Punjab, India.
Background: Dyslipidemia (Dys), the commonest cause of cardiovascular diseases, leads to lipid deposits on the arterial wall, thereby aggravating the process of atherosclerosis. To assess the impact of Dys and other co-morbid conditions on atherosclerosis (i.e., increased intimo medial thickness (IMT) or plaques) in the common carotid arteries (CCAs) we studied the incidence and association of plaques and increased IMT in dyslipidemic patients from North Indian population (south-west of Punjab, India). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study consisting of 88 (male-39 and female-49) dyslipidemic patients (age group 30-80 years); was designed. Blood pressure, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) were measured and fasting lipid profile, renal function, and liver function tests were performed. B-mode sonography, for CCA, was performed to assess IMT. Results: Average value (mg/dl) of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein in males and females was 220.30 versus 231.93, 240.3 versus 242.14, 125.29 versus 133.62 and 44.33 versus 46.09 respectively (P > 0.05, all), while WC, HC, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were 101.8 versus 96.53 cm, 98.23 versus 99.53 cm, 143.23 versus 138.98 mmHg and 91.53 versus 88.97 mmHg respectively. Increased IMT and atherosclerotic plaques were observed in 36.36% cases (n = 32, male – 14 and female – 18) and 29.54% cases (n = 26, male 14, female 12) respectively. Odd ratio (OR) for plaques was more for Dys with coronary artery disease (CAD; 11.43) and Dys with CAD (Dys-CAD) + hypertension (HT) (24) respectively vs isolated Dys. Conclusion: Dyslipidemia patients have higher waist and HCs than normal subjects. Incidence and OR of plaques is higher in Dys-CAD or Dys-CAD + HT when compared to isolated Dys or Dys with HT. Hence, treatment of dyslipidemic patients’ needs to be intensified if more than one risk factor(s) is present simultaneously.
Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases, carotid intimo-medial thickness, common carotid arteries, co-morbid conditions, hip circumference, hypertension, risk factors, waist circumference.