Ismail Hamad1, Nazli Arda2, Murat Pekmez2, Semian Karaer2, Güler Temizkan2
1Department of Biochemistry, Upper Nile University, P.O. Box 1660 Khartoum, Sudan.
2Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Istanbul University, Vezneciler 34118, Istanbul, Turkey.
The ability of Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid), a water-soluble vitamin E analogue, to prevent oxidative damages is well characterized, but the mechanisms underlying it remain unclear. The protective effect of Trolox pre-treatment on H 2 O 2 -induced toxicity might be attributed to the decreased cellular permeability to H 2 O 2 or in vitro scavenging activity of Trolox, induction of antioxidant enzymes or the direct scavenging activity of Trolox. The results obtained rule out the first and second possibilities and intracellular scavenging activity was found to be the mechanism whereby Trolox confers protection. This was confirmed by measuring protein oxidation (levels), and the observed decrease in proteasomal activity indicated that the decrease in protein carbonyls was due to Trolox scavenging activity rather than proteasome activation. In conclusion, the intracellular scavenging activity of Trolox is a key protective mechanism against H 2 O 2 . These findings obtained in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a good model organism for eukaryotic cells, can be used as standard protocols for investigating the antioxidant activity of pure or complex potential antioxidants.
Keywords: Fission yeast, hydrogen peroxide, oxidative stress, protein oxidation, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Trolox.