Meena A Kukkamalla1, Kalyana C Pentapati2, Gowtham Suresh1, Ruchika Goyal3, Sonali M Cornelio1
1Department of Periodontology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India.
2Department of Public Health Dentistry, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India.
3Department of Periodontology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.
Objective: To evaluate the associated factors in reinitiating the smoking habit among the participants of a smoking cessation program conducted in a tobacco cessation clinic of Manipal University, Manipal. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among participants of a smoking cessation program who reinitiated smoking habit. A self-administered questionnaire was used that had information on demographic, habit history, knowledge on harmful effects of smoking behavior related to oral cavity and associated factors due to which individual was unable to quit the habit. Results: A total of 102 males (mean age = 39.91 ± 9.57) constituted the final sample. The results showed that habitual smokers were more likely to be ≥40 years and occasional smokers were all reported to be <93 years ( P < 0.001). Cigarette smokers were more likely to be of younger age group while majority of the Beedi and cigarette + Beedi smokers were older adults ( P < 0.001). The mean duration of the habit was significantly higher for older adults than young adults ( P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the number of packs between the age groups ( P = 0.054). A significantly higher proportion of young adults than older adults were aware about oral cancer ( P < 0.001). Significantly higher proportion of older adults than young adults tend to have a closest person to be a smoker ( P = 0.05). A significant higher proportion of young adults reason their habit as for pleasure (84.6%) and relaxation (68.8%), while older adults reason it to be as tension (64.1%) or combined factors (70.6%). Peer pressure was almost same in both the age groups ( P = 0.006). There were no significant differences in the withdrawal symptoms among young and older adults ( P = 0.41). Conclusion: Considerable differences were noticed between younger and older age groups in the factors which might play a role in re-intiating the smoking habit. A structured cessation program focused more on the above characteristics should be planned in public health programs based on the characteristics of the participants.
Keywords: Cessation, India, nicotine replacement therapies, re-initiation, smoking.